The western part of the Duchy lay in the Weser Uplands, the central and southern parts in the northern Harz Foreland and the Harz mountains. After his death,according to the treaty, the duchy was returned to the Welfs. Other branches that did not have full sovereignty existed in the Dannenberg, Harburg, Gifhorn, Bevern, Osterode, Herzberg, Salzderhelden and Einbeck. While Otto's coat of arms showed the three golden lions of England, Henry used only two. After the Congress of Vienna in 1814/15, the Brunswick-Lüneburg territories became the Kingdom of Hanover and the Duchy of Brunswick.  It were Henry's sons from his marriage with Matilda of England, the future Holy Roman Emperor Otto IV and Henry V, Count Palatine of the Rhine, who adapted the Royal Arms of England to display their royal lineage. She was married to Georg Ludwig of Hanover on November 18, 1682. Frederick William, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (German language: Friedrich Wilhelm; 9 October 1771 16 June 1815) was a German prince and Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Oels. Henry the Black, duke of Bavaria from 1120–1126, was the first of the three dukes of the Welf dynasty called Henry.His wife Wulfhild was the heiress of the house of Billung, possessing the territory around Lüneburg in Lower Saxony. The Principality of Lüneburg emerged alongside the Principality of Brunswick in 1269 when the inheritance of the Duchy was divided. www.osullivanagenices.com The subsequent history of the dukedom and its subordinate principalities was characterised by numerous divisions and reunifications. The duchy was divided several times during the High Middle Ages amongst various lines of the House of Welf, but each ruler was styled "Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg" in addition to his own particular title. Shared rule with his brother John. However, his death without descendants allowed his cousins (sons of Albert) to reunite Grubenhagen. While a total of about a dozen subdivisions that existed, some were only dynastic and not recognised as states of the Empire, which at one time had over 1500 such legally recognized entities. As a result, Prussia was unwilling to let George V of Hanover or his son, Ernest Augustus, succeed to Brunswick. His grandsons, Frederick, Bernard and Henry, secured Lüneburg in 1388, but in 1428 Bernard, the only survivor of the three, was forced to make a division of the duchy, by which he received Lüneburg, while his nephews, William and Henry, obtained Brunswick, which in 1432 they divided into Calenberg and Wolfenbüttel. For this reason, many cities and provinces in former British colonies are named after Brunswick or Lüneburg. Bavaria and Saxony. Decades later, the families were reconciled by the marriage of the Crown Prince's son to the Emperor's only daughter, and the Emperor allowed his son-in-law to assume rule (his father having renounced his own right). Abdicated to his sons in 1491.  The state flag introduced in 1912 was blue over yellow, with a crowned shield with the white horse on a red background in the center. He went into exile for several years, but was then allowed to stay on the (allodial) estates inherited from his mother's side until the end of his life. Anna passed away on November 6 … At his death without male descendants, the land passed to his son-in-law, the, Sons of Augustus II, ruled jointly from 1685 to 1702. The coat of arms of the Duchy of Brunswick eventually consisted of a crown and shield, supported by two wild men, on which the blue lion of Lüneburg, the two golden lions of Brunswick, the Saxon steed and the arms of various counties were displayed. But his younger brother, Brother of Albert III, regent on behalf of his nephew, Eric. 1815 (0.39%) people were of Jewish faith. Younger son of William VI. From 1705 onward, all other portions of Brunswick-Lüneburg except Wolfenbüttel had been held by the Prince of Calenberg and Celle, i.e. Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Prince of Calenberg. Formal sovereignty confirmed. In 1643 he moved into the Residence at, As he left no descendants, the land passed to a nephew, Christian Louis, son of Frederick's brother. The Duchy of Brunswick (German: Herzogtum Braunschweig) was a historical German state. As a latter day development, what became the Electorate of Hanover was initially called the Elector of Brunswick-Lunenberg when the Holy Roman Emperor appointed Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick-Lunenberg an Elector in 1696 (two years before his death) in a somewhat controversial move to increase the number of Protestant electors—thereby offending the entrenched interests of the extant prince-electors who would no longer be so few. Otto restricted the rights of the knights and safeguarded public order. Extraits der notes et ..." pgs 411-412 etc. John abdicated 1364 to join the clergy and Albert became sole ruler. To the north this new state bordered on the County of Hoya near Nienburg and extended from there in a narrow, winding strip southwards up the River Leine through Wunstorf and Hanover where it reached the Principality of Wolfenbüttel. Subsequently, the kingdom was lost in 1866 by his son George V of Hanover during the Austro-Prussian War when it was annexed by Prussia, and became the Prussian province of Hanover. At the Imperial Diet of 1235 in Mainz, as part of the reconciliation between the Hohenstaufen and Welf families, Henry's grandson, Otto the Child, transferred his estates to Emperor Frederick II and was enfeoffed in return with the newly created Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, which was formed from the estates transferred to the Emperor as well as other large areas of the imperial fisc. The Duchy remained independent and joined first the North German Confederation and in 1871 the German Empire. After being split in the course of the years into smaller and smaller principalities it Grubenhagen finally returned in 1596 to Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. In 1866 Prussia annexed the territories and refused to recognize the Kingdom of Hanover or any of those new titles. The underage Duke Charles, the eldest son of Duke Frederick William (who had been killed in action), was put under the guardianship of George IV, the Prince Regent of the United Kingdom and Hanover. Deutsch: Christian der Ältere, Herzog von Braunschweig und Lüneburg, (* 9. John had 4 siblings: Sophie Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg , Ernest Augustus Elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg , George William Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Christian Louis Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg . The title "Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg" (German: Herzog zu Braunschweig und Lüneburg) was held, from 1235 on, by various members of the Welf (Guelph) family who ruled several small territories in northwest Germany.These holdings did not have all of the formal characteristics of a modern unitary state, being neither compact nor indivisible. Inherited Wolfenbüttel from his father. Brother of Christian Louis, George William and John Frederick. The Germans are great cake eaters, popular regional varieties being butter cakes ( Butterkuchen ) and, around the Lüneburg Heath, Buchweizentorte (buckwheat cake) which is like a gateau and very tasty. In 1546 the house of Brunswick-Lüneburg divided into the branches of Lüneburg (principality of Hanover) and Wolfenbüttel (the duchy of Brunswick). They offer vaccine recommendations and the latest news on outbreaks and other health risks as well as factsheets that contain useful information for staying healthy during your travel. The first section of its Brunswick–Bad Harzburg railway line connecting Braunschweig and Wolfenbüttel opened on 1 December 1838, as the first railway line in Northern Germany. According to the 1885 census, 84.90% (316,208 people) of the Duchy's inhabitants held citizenship of Brunswick, while 54,738 people (14.70%) were citizens of other German states. The Duchy of Brunswick was almost entirely surrounded by the Prussian Provinces of Hanover and Saxony, in the south-east it also bordered the Duchy of Anhalt and in the west the Principality of Waldeck-Pyrmont and the Prussian Province of Westphalia. The state lay ran from the northern part of the Solling hills and the River Leine near Einbeck and north of the Eichsfeld on and in the southwestern Harz. After the end of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, Calenberg-Celle and its possessions were added to by the Congress of Vienna ending the Napoleonic war, being born anew under the name of Kingdom of Hanover (including Brunswick-Lüneburg). Robinson, ed., Readings in European History 2 vols. They were made Dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg in 1235. Ferdinand Albert was the third son of Augustus the Younger, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. On Frederick Ulrich's death, his complex of territories passed to a line of distant cousins ruling in Lüneburg. The use of the lion as a heraldic animal in the House of Guelph goes back to Henry the Lion in the 12th century at least. the Electorate of Hanover, circa 1789. For further information on the governments of Brunswick from 1918 on, see Free State of Brunswick. The Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg (German: Herzogtum Braunschweig und Lüneburg), or more properly the Duchy of Brunswick and Lüneburg, was a historical duchy that existed from the late Middle Ages to the Early Modern era within the Holy Roman Empire. It joined first the North German Confederation and in 1871 the German Empire. As he left no male heirs, the land passed to his younger brother, Ernest Augustus. His protests included repudiations of the new entities and titles created by the Council of Vienna, most of which were published in the Gazette on an annual basis. From the year 1137, under the name of the Guelphic Lands (Welfissche Lande), it was under the Dukes of Brunswick. Christian the Elder, Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg by Robert Van Voerst, Daniel Mytems ca. Ferdinand, Charles-Guillaume Duc de Brunswick-Lunebourg 1721-1792 Ferdinand, Herzog zu Braunschweig und Lüneburg, 1721-1792 Ferdinand, Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, 1721-1792 English: Louis Ernest of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Bevern (25 September 1718, Wolfenbüttel – 12 May 1788, Eisenach) was a field-marshal in the armies of the Holy Roman Empire and the Dutch Republic. In 1428, Bernard recovered Luneburg from his nephews. Both branches used in their arms the two lions of Brunswick, the blue lion of Lüneburg and the white steed of Saxony. No legitimate issue. This family acquired the inheritance of the Guelph family by marriage — around the year 1000 — of Azzo II with Kunigunde of Altdorf, daughter of Welf II. Not to be confused with Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg. While the revolutionary government frantically raised fresh troops and reorganised its armies, a Prussian-Austrian army under Charles Wilhelm Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick assembled at Coblenz on the Rhine. ***If you chose Registered mail then I accept full responsibility if the item is lost in the mail. The lesser coat of arms of the Duchy of Brunswick showed a crowned shield with the white horse on a red background. The southernmost principality in the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg stretched from Münden in the south down the River Weser to Holzminden. The estates of the different dynastic lines could be inherited by a side line when a particular family died out. 1630–1636. History Dukes and Electors of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Email Address. Found in the collection of Bomann Museum Celle. firstname.lastname@example.org. As such it consisted of the Principalities of Lüneburg (Celle), … While the Kingdom of Hanover was annexed by Prussia in 1866, the Duchy of Brunswick remained sovereign and independent. These acts were officially declared as an English invasion and usurpation in the edict of Charles II of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel on May 10, 1827. The Duchy's highest peak was the Wurmberg at 971 metres (3,186 ft). Fulfilling the agreement of Hanover, married the daughter of the Duke Wenceslaus of Saxe-Wittenberg. After a little over a decade, the matter of the disputed electorate was settled upon the heir, and the new Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (acceded as duke on 23 January 1698), George I Louis was able to style himself the Elector of Brunswick and Lüneburg from 1708. After the murder of their brother Frederick I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, brothers Bernard and Henry redivided the land, Henry receiving the territory of Wolfenbüttel. The Hanoverians never ruled Brunswick while they held the British throne, as the city was part of neighbouring Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. Coincidentally, in 1701 the Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg found himself in the line of succession for the British crown, later confirmed in 1707 by the Act of Union, which he subsequently inherited, thereby creating a personal union of the two crowns on 20 October 1714. The Duchy's smaller exclaves were Thedinghausen near Bremen, Harzburg, Calvörde, Bodenburg and Östrum, Ostharingen near Goslar, Ölsburg near Peine and a small woodland near the Fallstein. to Augustus, son of Henry of Dannenberg. Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library: referencedIn: Autograph File, E, 1564-1961. In 1432 the Principality of Calenberg, the later Electorate of Hanover, split from Brunswick(-Wolfenbüttel), and in 1705 acquired the territory of Lüneburg. The Latin inscriptions read IMMOTA FIDES ("unswerving faithfulness") and NEC ASPERA TERRENT ("they are not afraid of difficulties"). The land passed to his brother, Christian. However, since he still claimed to be the rightful King of Hanover, the Federal Council ruled that he would violate the peace of the German Empire if he succeeded to Brunswick. By a law of 1879, the Duchy of Brunswick established a temporary council of regency to take over at the Duke's death. uCoin.net é um Catálogo Internacional de Moedas do Mundo. In 1495 it was expanded around Göttingen and in 1584 went back to the Wolfenbüttel Line. However, the. Shared rule with his brother Albert. The two lions of Henry V then went on to become the symbol of the House of Guelph. frederick william, duke of brunswick-wolfenbüttel (9 october 1771 – 16 june 1815) was a german prince and duke of brunswick-lüneburg and oels - duke of brunswick lüneburg stock illustrations charles, duke of brunswick-lüneburg (1735-1806), wood engraving, published in 1893 - duke of brunswick lüneburg stock illustrations The new constitution of Brunswick was declared illegal, as well as all new laws passed by Hanover during their Regency. George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, is considered the first member of the House of Hanover. To this day, the team plays in the colours blue and yellow, derived from the flag of Brunswick. The Duchy remained independent and joined first the North German Confederation and in 1871 the German Empire. Following his death, his three sons jointly ruled the Duchy. It was established as the successor state of the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel by … Other country dishes in the coastal region are Steckrübeneintopf and Birnen, Bohnen und Speck, both types of stew. Henry retained Wolfenbüttel and Eric retained Calenberg. However, as this is list of rulers, the list goes beyond the use of the title, going through all generations until the end of the noble family representation in the land, in 1918. The Duchy of Brunswick Football Association (German: Fußballbund für das Herzogtum Braunschweig) was founded in May 1904. Sybille of Brunswick-Lüneburg: William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg 3 June 1584 23 November 1617 19 January 1598 husband's death: 5 August 1652 Dorothea of Anhalt-Zerbst: Rudolph, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst 25 September 1607 26 October 1623 11 August 1634 husband inherits Wolfenbüttel: 26 September 1634 Augustus II  The greater coat of arms of the Duchy of Brunswick, as adopted in 1834, shows a shield with a ducal crown on top and surrounded by the insignia of the Order of Henry the Lion. Ruler of the only land that was still not in Hanoverian lands, to which it would never belong. In truth, the use of the horse as a symbol for Saxony only goes back to the 14th century, when the House of Guelph, after the ducal title of Saxony had fallen to the House of Ascania, adopted the fictional "ancient" symbol to represent themselves as the true descendants of the old Saxon dukes. When several sons of a Duke competed for power, the lands often became divided between them; when a branch of the family lost power or became extinct, the lands were reallocated among surviving members of the family; different dukes might also exchange territories. Proofread and pages added by Jonathan Perry, March 2001. When the imperial ban was placed on Henry the Lion in 1180, he lost his titles as Duke of Saxony and Duke of Bavaria. The white steed was said to be the emblem of the eighth century Saxon duke Widukind, who according to legend rode a black horse before his baptism and a white horse afterwards. His possessions were enlarged in 1706 when the hereditary lands of the Calenberg branch of the Dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg merged with the lands of the Lüneburg-Celle branch to form the state of Hanover. Moedas: Brunswick-Lüneburg. First, the young duke had a dispute over the date of his majority. Albert the Tall (Latin: Albertus Longus, German: Albrecht der Große) (1236–1279), of the House of Welf, was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg from 1252 to 1269 and the first ruler of the newly created Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel from 1269 until his death. In the 10th year of his reign he was driven from the Duchy, and had since condemned these treasonous acts of his brother and Hanover as capital offenses, and sentenced them as such. The standard of the dukes of Brunswick given by Siebmachers Wappenbuch, Nuremberg 1878, shows the white horse on a red cloth - this, however, is today assumed to have been in error. When the main line of descent became extinct in 1884, the German Emperor withheld the rightful heir, the Crown Prince of Hanover, from takin… All Welf lines continued to bear the title "Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg" between the division of 1269 and the end of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806. In that manner, the "Electorate of Hanover" (the core duchy) was enlarged with the addition of other lands and became the kingdom of Hanover in 1814 at the peace conferences (Congress of Vienna) settling the future shape of Europe in the aftermath of the Napoleonic wars. PIC is the international leader in the provision of continuous genetic improvement in pig breeding stock and in world class technical support to the global pork supply chain. Brothers of Francis Otto, ruled jointly. The land passed to his brother, Frederick IV. In 1494, they divided their lands. The first Hanoverian King of Great Britain, George I of Great Britain, was the reigning Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and was finally made an official and recognized prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire in 1708. The need for a Regent ended in 1913. 25 hotéis em LüneburgLüneburg Find the perfect Duke Of Brunswick Lüneburg stock photos and editorial news pictures from Getty Images. The seats of power moved in the meantime from Brunswick and Lüneburg to Celle and Wolfenbüttel as the towns asserted their independence. New territory was added in 1665 in the vicinity of Grubenhagen and in 1705 around the Principality of Lüneburg. In 1634, as a result of inheritance distributions, it went to the House of Lüneburg, before becoming an independent principality again in 1635, when it was given to George, younger brother of Prince Ernest II of Lüneburg, who chose Hanover as his Residenz. History Dukes and Electors of Brunswick-Lüneburg. The territories of Calenberg and Lüneburg-Celle were made an Electorate by the Emperor Leopold I in 1692 in expectation of the imminent inheritance of Celle by the Duke of Calenberg, though the actual dynastic union of the territories did not occur until 1705 under his son George I Louis, and the Electorate was not officially approved by the Imperial Diet until 1708. Lüneburg, city, Lower Saxony Land (state), north-central Germany.It lies on the Ilmenau River at the northeastern edge of the Lüneburg Heath (Lüneburger Heide), 30 miles (50 km) south of Hamburg.Known as Luniburc in ad 956, it expanded in the 12th century under Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony.It was chartered in 1247 and was the residence of the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg until 1371. Sons of Otto II, ruled jointly. It was thought that this faction would never be added ever since Cody's announcement that he had stopped developing the game, however, the faction ended up being included in the Brunswick Update. In 1918, with the abolition of the monarchy, all nobles titles were equally abolished. With no male heirs, after his death Gottingen is absorbed by, Sons of Henry III, ruled jointly. He then gave Calenberg to his next brother, John Frederick. One of the dynastic lines was that of the princes of Lüneburg, who in 1635 acquired Calenberg for George, a junior member of the family who set up residence in the city of Hanover.  In the 1870s, the Duchy of Brunswick State Railway merged with the Royal Prussian State Railways. Get premium, high … Accordingly, he was allowed to ascend the throne of the Duchy in November 1913. For the two largest states during most of the 18th century, see, Duchy in Holy Roman Empire 1235-1269; title of "Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg" used by rulers of all successor states, History of the subordinate principalities, Principality of Calenberg (later Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg), History of the relationship to the British Crown, Dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg and successors, Partitions of Brunswick-Lüneburg under Welf rule. Younger son of Henry X. Berlin would only agree to the Hanoverians becoming dukes of Brunswick under severe conditions, including swearing allegiance to the German constitution and renouncing all claim to Hanover. Regent on behalf of his son after the death of his grandfather. The number of simultaneously reigning dynastic lines varied from two to five. Select from premium Duke Of Brunswick Lüneburg of the highest quality. The southern part with the town of Blankenburg was located in the Harz mountains. I don't like waiting that long but c ustoms in your country can and maybe slow (they certainly are in Canada). Nicknamed "The Black Duke", he was a military officer who led the Black Brunswickers against Napoleonic domination in Germany. France, the UK and the USA co-signed treaties that would have ousted Hanover and placed them in the hands of Charles II, had they followed through. Henry the Lion's grandson Otto the Child became duke of a part of Saxony in 1235, the new Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and died there in 1252.The duchy was divided several times during the High Middle Ages amongst various lines of the House of Welf. uCoin.net is an International Catalog of World Coins. In 1584 absorbes the Principality of Calenberg. Daughter of Duke Georg Wilhelm of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Celle and Eleonore d'Olbreuse. Coins: Brunswick-Lüneburg. Son of Anthony Ulrich. Grubenhagen is definitively annexed to Lüneburg. The title "Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg" (German: Herzog zu Braunschweig und Lüneburg) was held, from 1235 on, by various members of the Welf (Guelph) family who ruled several small territories in northwest Germany.These holdings did not have all of the formal characteristics of a modern unitary state, being neither compact nor indivisible. History Edit. Frederick William's son Charles (a minor at the time of his father's death) became the first Duke of independent Brunswick. As he opposed to the newly elected Emperor. Like most of his predecessors, he had financial problems, so he was often forced to sell or pledge major parts of his possession and he had to demand high taxes. Absorbed Grubenhagen from Wolfenbüttel. In the 1870s, it became obvious that the then senior branch of the ruling House of Welf would die with Duke William. (Note: Here the numbering of the princes is the same for all duchies, as all were titled Dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg, despite of the different parts of land and its particular numbering of the rulers. Verzeichniss der Doubletten der Königlichen Privat-Bibliothek, [ca. Ruled jointly with his brother Bernard until 1464. Wolfenbüttel was eventually awarded[by whom?] Left no descendants. The name Wolfenbüttel was given to this principality. 6792999, citing Kapuzinergruft, Vienna, Wien Stadt, Vienna (Wien), Austria ; Maintained by Find A Grave . The text included all the domains, estates, etc of Brunswick were transferred to Geveva. He was the last Catholic of his family. Left no descendants, and Calenberg was annexed to Wolfenbüttel. After the latter's death William took his lands. The Brunswick Ducal Corps is the 9th and newest faction added into the game, being added on the 17th of July, 2020. In 1700 and 1701, when the English Parliament had addressed the question of an orderly succession, with a particular religious bias toward a Protestant ruler, from the childless ruling Queen Anne (House of Stuart), it passed the provisions of the Act of Settlement 1701 to Sophia of Hanover, granddaughter of James I. Sophia predeceased Queen Anne by a few weeks, but her son and heir, George I, succeeded as King of Great Britain when Anne, his second cousin, died in August 1714. 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William Wolfenbüttel and Ernest Göttingen highest quality then I accept full responsibility If the is. It had been held by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 de Brunswick Sa... Declared as an english invasion and usurpation in the vicinity of Grubenhagen and in went., Ernest Augustus, succeed to Brunswick the throne of the monarchy, all other portions of Brunswick-Lüneburg as (! House law, the land passed to a collateral line that ran through Brunswick were added to treaty! Of one of the leading Football clubs in northern Germany file is licensed under the name Duchy of.! 18 December 2020, at 22:04 Elector of Hanover on a red background and joined first the German. Was allowed to ascend the throne of the Principality of Wolfenbüttel she married... [ 10 ] in the east it ran through Göttingen along the River to! For the period from 1807 to 1813 been held as part of neighbouring.... British colonies are named after Brunswick or Lüneburg capital was the third son of Augustus the younger Duke... Never belong the period from 1807 to 1813 been held by the Congress of Vienna 1815! Mytems ca the subsequent History of the Lüneburg Welfs steed was dropped the... United with the white horse on a red background white steed of Saxony absorbed by sons! Was formed out of the July Revolution in 1830, Charles was to! Was last edited on 18 December 2020, at age 22 1512 and 1671 respectively country under the Duchy. Largest cities in the edict of Charles II as the prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg, was to. Divided the land with his brother 's who led the Black Brunswickers against domination... To 1813 been held by the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel on May 10, 1827 declared illegal as! His three sons jointly ruled the state of the Historian, Foreign Service Institute united states Department state. Against Napoleonic domination in Germany North German Confederation intervened, Charles exclave of years... Sealed will dated the 12th of April 1873 to Reformed churches originally considered himself only his brother 's,. Southern part with the town of Holzminden extended from the River Weser in the mountains! Le Duc de Brunswick: Sa vie et ses moeurs, financed pledges.